WHEN MARS WAS
SIMILAR TO JUPITER.
Vernadsky-Brown Microsymposium, Abstracts, GEOKHI RAS, Moscow, October 27-28, 2003,
# MS014. (The Article is given with small revision)
WHEN MARS WAS SIMILAR TO
E.V.Dmitriev, Moscow, Email: email@example.com
The origin of the Mars dichotomy still
remains, probably, one of the most intriguing riddle in the planetary system. If the Earth
dichotomy could be explained by the tectonic activity then the Plutonic processes on the
Mars did not reach such level in order to the global tectonics of the lithospherical
plates could begin. For this reason, in order to explain the origin of the Mars dichotomy
the external reasons of the disastrous nature became be attracted. However, any acceptable
mechanism of such catastrophe explaining the whole complex of the features of the macro
relief of the planet north hemisphere until was suggested.
The reason of such position is probably
concealed, first of all, in that the collision mechanism of
a large asteroid with a stone body of the planet  is attracted. Such
approach is stipulated by the empirical data on a large catastrophes happened with the
Moon, Mercury and moons of the giant planets. The moon dates of such events have permitted
us to estimate the time interval - 4±0,2 billion years ago - of appearance in the Solar
system of a large pins population which caused the gigantic meteorite bombing of the Solar
At the end of the last century the idea
of the temporary catch of the hydrogen-helium atmospheres by the Earth group planets during the process of their
formation was repeatedly suggested . Besides, in the same century two space
catastrophes have occurred which study results can throw light on the Mars dichotomy
origin. Theses catastrophes cover the fall of the Tunguska meteorite (1908) and comet
Shoemaker-Levy-9 on the Jupiter (1996).
Let us imagine that at the period of
gigantic meteorite bombing the Mars was still enveloped by powerful
primary atmosphere (PPA) and had a commanding size that greatly increased the
probability of its casual collision with the most large objects. And such a meeting once
occurred. Further the events followed according to mechanical and gas dynamic models of an
explosion, developed by the Soviet researchers even in 70-80 years of the last century for
application to Tunguska meteorite [3-6]. Hyper-sized
asteroide entered the upper layers of the PPA where burst or rather was exposed to
explosion-like destruction above the modern north pole location which resulted in the
occurrence of a complex system of ballistic and spherical strong shock waves in the
atmosphere. Upon reaching the planet solid body surface, they (like gigantic rollers
having passed from polar to equatorial latitudes) practically destroyed the
post-accreation topography of the northern hemisphere and induced the lowering of the
topography level by ~2 km in average. It may be well founded assumed that before the
catastrophe the topography of the northern hemisphere slightly differed from the southern
The spherical explosive shock wave was
the first that reached the solid surface of the planet (in the north pole region). The
angle of impingement of the shock wave edge gradually increased as the wave was
propagating southward along the meridians. When its value became more than 450,
the impinging shock edge merged with reflected shock edge  and the main shock wave was
generated which is characterized by more higher pressures. There is good reason to believe
that the prime shock wave started to generate at ~700 of north latitude where
the traces of ancient topography are still available. If this assumption corresponds to
the reality the altitude of the explosion is easily defined – it will be ~2500 km. When
propagating further the main shock wave effected the soil more strongly comparing to the
falling shock wave judging from the lowest area of the depression between 700 -
500 of northen latitude.
Fig.1 shows the plan of the depression in
polar coordinates. The so called “coast” line where the ancient topography starts to
emerge is assumed as the border of the depression. Through
the Forsida eminence the border is assumed conventional because the evolved
volcanic activity imposed its influence on the terrain. In spite the fact that the plan of
the depression bears little resemblance to the
plan of Tunguska tree-felling “butterfly” (Fig. 2a), the nature of these formations is
the same. However, for the Martian option the ratio between the power of the object
explosion and the power of object brake in the atmosphere was evidently more than that of
at Tunguska and this resulted in the significant increase of the “butterfly head”. It
is worth noting that the power of brake is the function of the body mass and depends on
mean-square value of its diameter, and the power of explosion is the function of the body
mass and depends on the value of the body diameter to the third. Besides, the combined
interaction between the shock waves and Elisium and Forsida eminences could make their
contribution to the increase of «butterfly head».
In this and other cases the origin of the
«butterflies» wings is explained by increasing the pressure on the ground along the
lines of crossing the fronts of the explosive and ballistic waves. On the Mars the left «butterflies» wing is presented by Acidalia
planitia and Chryse planitia, the left one by Isidis planitia and Syrtis Major planitia.
If the wings of the Tunguska «butterflies»
are placed symmetrically, the wings of the Mars «butterflies» are turned clockwise. If
PPA together with the planet stone nucleus had a solid body rotation, the depression plan
would be symmetrical. The turn of the «butterflies» wings to the side opposite the
rotation of the planet uniquely indicates that PPA had a differential rotation, viz: the
upper atmosphere layer rotated faster than deep one.
Fig. 2b shows the design configuration of
the Tunguska tree-felling plan executed by the V.P. Korobeynikov’s group  for the 300
meteorite trajectory inclination angle on which the hollow between wings was clearly
shown. Probably, in the first approximation and for the Mars super asteroid the same
trajectory inclination angle should be assumed. Also, in the first approximation coming
from the rational assumptions the size of the super asteroid at the first hundred
kilometers can be estimated at r=2g/cm3 and
collision on the counter courses.
The origin of the flat impact craters of
the South hemisphere can be explained by falling the planetzimals
after their braking and parachuting in the powerful primary atmosphere at the final phase
of the Mars accretion.
Fig. 1. The Plan to martian
1 – Elisium uplift; 2 – Forsida uplift;
3- Chryse planitia; 4 - Acidalia planitia; 5 - Syrtis Major planitia; 6 -
Fig. 2a.The plan of Tunguska
Fig. 2b. Calculated picture
tree-felling for corner of the slopping to
paths 300 and height of the blast on surface 5 km..
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(in Rus). . Grigoryan, S. 1976. Dokl. USSR. 321.
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